Prostate glands-The prostate - Macmillan Cancer Support

If you're struggling to find what you need, call our Support line on 7 days a week, 8am-8pm. We're improving our website. See the new version of this page. The prostate is a small gland about the size of a walnut. The prostate gets bigger as men get older.

Prostate glands

Prostate glands

Prostate glands

Prostate glands

Here's five changes you may see or feel just by taking more…. Doctors do not yet know whether prostate cancer screening lowers the risk of dying from prostate cancer. Seminal fluid helps Prostate glands sperm to travel and survive. For more information, visit our Privacy Policy. DO NOT drink a lot of fluid all at once. For the "prostrate" body position, see Prostate glands. Talk with your doctor about the best choice for you. Gglands of a Grant.

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Fraction of adult gland [6]. Please review our privacy policy. This results in the removal of mostly transitional zone tissue in a patient with BPH. The prostatic part Prostaye the urethra develops from the middle, pelvic, part of the urogenital sinusof endodermal origin. Am J Physiol. A 3D digital illustration of the prostate gland, shown here in yellow. Prostate gland. The prostate Prostate glands found as a male accessory gland in all placental mammals excepting edentatesmartensbadgers and otters. Three histological types of cells are present in the prostate gland: glandular cells, myoepithelial cells, and subepithelial interstitial cells. More About. Sometimes, Prostate glands decision may be made not to treat prostate cancer. Anatomical terminology [ edit on Wikidata ]. Comparing normal and enlarged prostate glands At normal size, the prostate gland is about the size and shape of Vikings wives walnut or golf ball.

The prostate is a gland that produces the fluid that carries sperm during ejaculation.

  • The prostate gland is located just below the bladder in men and surrounds the top portion of the tube that drains urine from the bladder urethra.
  • The prostate gland is a male reproductive organ whose main function is to secrete prostate fluid, one of the components of semen.
  • The prostate is an exocrine gland of the male reproductive system in most mammals.

The prostate is a gland that produces the fluid that carries sperm during ejaculation. The prostate gland surrounds the urethra, the tube through which urine passes out of the body. An enlarged prostate means the gland has grown bigger. Prostate enlargement happens to almost all men as they get older.

An enlarged prostate is often called benign prostatic hyperplasia BPH. It is not cancer, and it does not raise your risk for prostate cancer. The actual cause of prostate enlargement is unknown.

Factors linked to aging and changes in the cells of the testicles may have a role in the growth of the gland, as well as testosterone levels. Men who have had their testicles removed at a young age for example, as a result of testicular cancer do not develop BPH. Also, if the testicles are removed after a man develops BPH, the prostate begins to shrink in size.

Your health care provider will ask questions about your medical history. A digital rectal exam will also be done to feel the prostate gland. Other tests may include:. You may be asked to fill out a form to rate how bad your symptoms are and how much they affect your daily life.

Your provider can use this score to judge if your condition is getting worse over time. The treatment you choose will be based on how bad your symptoms are and how much they bother you.

Your provider will also take into account other medical problems you may have. If you are over 60, you are more likely to have symptoms. But many men with an enlarged prostate have only minor symptoms. Self-care steps are often enough to make you feel better. If you have BPH, you should have a yearly exam to monitor your symptoms and see if you need changes in treatment.

Alpha-1 blockers are a class of drugs that are also used to treat high blood pressure. These medicines relax the muscles of the bladder neck and prostate. This allows easier urination. Finasteride and dutasteride lower levels of hormones produced by the prostate. These drugs also reduce the size of the gland, increase urine flow rate, and decrease symptoms of BPH. You may need to take these medicines for 3 to 6 months before you notice symptoms getting better.

Possible side effects include decreased sex drive and impotence. Antibiotics may be prescribed to treat chronic prostatitis inflammation of the prostate , which may occur with BPH. BPH symptoms improve in some men after a course of antibiotics. Watch out for drugs that may make your symptoms worse :.

Many herbs have been tried for treating an enlarged prostate. Many men use saw palmetto to ease symptoms. Some studies have shown that it may help with symptoms, but results are mixed, and more research is needed.

If you use saw palmetto and think it works, ask your doctor if you should still take it. The choice of which surgical procedure is recommended is most often based on the severity of your symptoms and the size and shape of your prostate gland. Most men who have prostate surgery have improvement in urine flow rates and symptoms. TURP is performed by inserting a scope through the penis and removing the prostate piece by piece. Simple prostatectomy : It is a procedure to remove the inside part of the prostate gland.

It is done through a surgical cut in your lower belly. This treatment is most often done on men who have very large prostate glands. Other less-invasive procedures use heat or a laser to destroy prostate tissue. Another less-invasive procedure works by "tacking" the prostate open without removing or destroying tissues. None have been proven to be better than TURP. People who receive these procedures are more likely to need surgery again after 5 or 10 years. However, these procedures may be a choice for:.

Some men may find it helpful to take part in a BPH support group. Pharmacologic management of lower urinary tract storage and emptying failure. Campbell-Walsh Urology. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; chap Ferri FF. Prostatic hyperplasia, benign. In: Ferri FF, ed. Ferri's Clinical Advisor Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; Evaluation and nonsurgical management of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

Prostate enlargement benign prostatic hyperplasia. Updated September Accessed September 15, Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Editorial team. Enlarged prostate. Watch this video about: Enlarged prostate gland. Some facts about prostate enlargement: The likelihood of developing an enlarged prostate increases with age. BPH is so common that it has been said all men will have an enlarged prostate if they live long enough. A small amount of prostate enlargement is present in many men over age No risk factors have been identified, other than having normally-functioning testicles.

Less than half of all men with BPH have symptoms of the disease. Symptoms may include: Dribbling at the end of urinating Inability to urinate urinary retention Incomplete emptying of your bladder Incontinence Needing to urinate 2 or more times per night Pain with urination or bloody urine these may indicate infection Slowed or delayed start of the urinary stream Straining to urinate Strong and sudden urge to urinate Weak urine stream. Exams and Tests.

Other tests may include: Urine flow rate Post-void residual urine test to see how much urine is left in your bladder after you urinate Pressure-flow studies to measure the pressure in the bladder as you urinate Urinalysis to check for blood or infection Urine culture to check for infection Prostate-specific antigen PSA blood test to screen for prostate cancer Cystoscopy Blood urea nitrogen BUN and creatinine tests You may be asked to fill out a form to rate how bad your symptoms are and how much they affect your daily life.

Treatment options include "watchful waiting," lifestyle changes, medicines, or surgery. Also, go to the bathroom on a timed schedule, even if you don't feel a need to urinate. Avoid alcohol and caffeine, especially after dinner. DO NOT drink a lot of fluid all at once. Spread out fluids during the day.

Avoid drinking fluids within 2 hours of bedtime. Try NOT to take over-the-counter cold and sinus medicines that contain decongestants or antihistamines. These drugs can increase BPH symptoms. Keep warm and exercise regularly. Cold weather and lack of physical activity may worsen symptoms. Learn and perform Kegel exercises pelvic strengthening exercises.

Reduce stress. Nervousness and tension can lead to more frequent urination. SURGERY Prostate surgery may be recommended if you have: Incontinence Recurrent blood in the urine Inability to fully empty the bladder urinary retention Recurrent urinary tract infections Decreasing kidney function Bladder stones Bothersome symptoms not responding to medicines The choice of which surgical procedure is recommended is most often based on the severity of your symptoms and the size and shape of your prostate gland.

However, these procedures may be a choice for: Younger men many of the less-invasive procedures carry a lower risk for impotence and incontinence than TURP, although the risk with TURP is not very high Older people People with severe medical conditions, including uncontrolled diabetes , cirrhosis , alcoholism, psychosis , and serious lung, kidney, or heart disease Men who are taking blood-thinning drugs Men who are otherwise at an increased surgical risk.

Possible Complications. Men who have had BPH for long time with slowly worsening symptoms may develop: Sudden inability to urinate Urinary tract infections Urinary stones Damage to the kidneys Blood in the urine BPH may come back over time, even after having surgery. When to Contact a Medical Professional. Call your provider right away if you have: Less urine than usual Fever or chills Back, side, or abdominal pain Blood or pus in your urine Also call if: Your bladder does not feel completely empty after you urinate.

You take medicines that may cause urinary problems, such as diuretics, antihistamines, antidepressants, or sedatives. DO NOT stop or change your medicines without talking to your provider. You have tried self-care steps for 2 months and symptoms have not improved.

Alternative Names. BPH; Benign prostatic hyperplasia hypertrophy ; Prostate - enlarged. Patient Instructions. Enlarged prostate - what to ask your doctor Prostate resection - minimally invasive - discharge Transurethral resection of the prostate - discharge. Health Topics A-Z Read more.

By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Notice. This leads to an evolutionary design fault for some mammals, including human males. The gland is particularly well developed in dogs, foxes and boars, though in other mammals, such as bulls, it can be small and inconspicuous. The prostate gland is in the lesser or true pelvis,…. It can be caused by infection with bacteria, or other noninfective causes. Advertising revenue supports our not-for-profit mission.

Prostate glands

Prostate glands. Prostate gland

The muscles of the prostate also ensure that the semen is forcefully pressed into the urethra and then expelled outwards during ejaculation. The prostate is located directly below the bladder and above the muscles of the pelvic floor. The rectum is behind the prostate, making it possible to feel the gland from the rectum using the finger. The ducts in the prostate gland flow into the urethra, which passes through the prostate.

The prostate gland is surrounded by a capsule of connective tissue containing many smooth muscle fibers and elastic connective tissue, which is why it feels very elastic to the touch when it is examined. There are also many smooth muscle cells inside of the prostate.

During ejaculation these muscle cells contract and forcefully press the fluid that has been stored in the prostate out into the urethra. This causes the fluid and the sperm cells, together with fluid from other glands, to combine to form semen, which is then released.

The tissue of the prostate gland can be divided into three different zones, listed here from innermost to outermost, which encircle the urethra like layers of an onion:. The transition zone tissue tends to undergo benign non-cancerous growth in old age. The medical term for this is benign prostatic hyperplasia BPH. If this tissue presses against the bladder and the urethra, it can lead to difficulties urinating. This is a common problem among older men. Malignant cancerous tumors in the prostate mostly develop in the peripheral zone instead.

Hormone metabolism: In the prostate the male sex hormone testosterone is transformed to a biologically active form, DHT dihydrotestosterone. IQWiG health information is written with the aim of helping people understand the advantages and disadvantages of the main treatment options and health care services. Because IQWiG is a German institute, some of the information provided here is specific to the German health care system. The suitability of any of the described options in an individual case can be determined by talking to a doctor.

We do not offer individual consultations. Our information is based on the results of good-quality studies. It is written by a team of health care professionals, scientists and editors, and reviewed by external experts. You can find a detailed description of how our health information is produced and updated in our methods. Turn recording back on. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Search term. The muscles of the prostate gland also help propel this seminal fluid into the urethra during ejaculation.

The prostate is a muscular gland that weighs about three-fourths of an ounce 20 grams about the size of a small apricot. It surrounds the urethra just beneath the bladder. During ejaculation, millions of sperm move from the testes through tubes called the vas deferens into the area of the prostate.

At this point, the prostate contracts, closing off the opening between the bladder and the urethra, releasing fluid into the urethra and pushing semen on through.

The fluid excreted by the prostate makes up about one-third of the total volume of semen and contains various enzymes, zinc and citric acid. Though prostate fluid is slightly acidic, another fluid in semen made by the seminal vesicles leaves semen slightly alkaline, or basic. This alkalinity helps protect sperm and prolong their life after they are deposited in the acidic environment of the vagina, according to the biology textbook, "Life: The Science of Biology, Eighth Addition" Sinauer Associates, One component of prostate fluid an enzyme called Prostate Specific Antigen PSA also aids in the success of sperm by liquefying semen that has thickened after ejaculation.

This thinning action allows sperm to swim more freely, according to the medical reference book "Prostate Specific Antigen" Informa Health Care,

Prostate: Functions, diseases, and tests

The prostate gland is located just below the bladder in men and surrounds the top portion of the tube that drains urine from the bladder urethra. The prostate's primary function is to produce the fluid that nourishes and transports sperm seminal fluid. Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. Advertising revenue supports our not-for-profit mission. Any use of this site constitutes your agreement to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy linked below.

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Prostate glands