All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this published article. Data entered in computer software packages will be available up on request. Negative attitude and discriminatory behavior of health professionals constitute a major obstacle in psychiatric care and have been pointed out as a key issue in working with mental illness. Understanding about the attitude of nurses is crucial for quality and holistic care of psychiatric services and essential for the successful integration of mental health into primary health care. However, there is a paucity of study to examine the attitude of primary health care nurses towards severe mental disorder in Ethiopia.
Ann Indian Psychiatry. A total of nurses completed items for 10 scales e. Formerly, nurses atritude inclined to give higher scores to belief in providing public services and sense of commitment to and acceptance of one's field of study or work while today they tend to move towards the aspects Nurses attitude autonomy and membership in professional organizations. This study is supported by studies from other settings xttitude Ethiopia and abroad, South Africa and Nigeria [ 1328 ]. Similarly, a low Nurses attitude of organizational subject norm and personal perceived behavioral control possibly links to negative acts through the negative perceptions. The results also show that the number of nurses who hold MSc. Professional attitude of Iranian nurse educators.
Pubes bikini oops. Role Of The Family Nurse Practitioner
Historically, the teaching role of nurses within medical education has been largely unrecognized, although in the clinical ward areas Nurses attitude nurses frequently educate and induct newly qualified doctors into routines and procedures. Forgot your password? Demographic variables and three domains were studied. Table 1 The mean scores based on the most common answers of nurses to patient educational barriers. Kantek F. Show up early. It is indeed one of the parameters in the Nurses attitude group having a direct impact on the quality of nursing services. J Med Educ. The use of suitably trained nurses to extend their sphere of responsibility may be an appropriate way to manage the demand without compromising quality or patient satisfaction. The study findings showed that the mean age of nurses was Push through Name of penis parts doubts and focus on your end results. Barriers to communication between health practitioners and service users who are not fluent in English. They do not need to be in a Nurses attitude where they feel they need to take care of you. Your attitude will make the difference between this being one of your best days ever, or one full of problem projects, problem people and gloomy circumstances.
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- The study was conducted using a cross-sectional design.
Background : Pain is the most disturbing and annoying symptom experienced by medical patients, yet it is poorly managed. Despite having many researches and scientific advancement in pain management over the years, inadequate knowledge remains a major barrier to achieving effective pain management.
Knowledge and attitudes of nurses towards pain management have an influence on how pain is managed. Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine the knowledge and attitudes of registered nurses towards pain management of adult medical patients at a provincial hospital in Zimbabwe. Method and Material: A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used. A systematic random sampling method was used to select the registered nurses.
Data was collected through a self-administered questionnaire developed from literature. Results: These results showed that registered nurses had inadequate knowledge with a mean knowledge score of This could contribute to poor pain management. Conclusion: Registered nurses at Bindura Hospital had low knowledge levels and poor attitude regarding pain management of adult medical patients.
Curricular changes aiming to promote pain management in medical patients and correcting the ingrained misconceptions are needed. Nurses play a pivotal role in pain management [ 1 ]. Lui, So and Fong reported that pain is a common symptom in patients in medical units and effective pain management strategies can relieve it effectively [ 6 ]. Basic principles of pain management recommends that pain should be assessed regularly i. Nurses knowledge of pain management is weak with incorrect answers being highest on pharmacology and assessment of pain although research shows that if health care providers assess and treat pain before it becomes severe, sensitization is avoided and less medication is needed [ 1 , 5 , 11 , 14 ].
Nurses also have the key responsibility of providing non-pharmacological therapies to patients as adjuvant to pharmacological interventions to maximise relief of pain.
The non-pharmacological interventions are grouped as cognitive and physical. Cognitive techniques focus on mental functions and these include music and relaxation. Physical techniques focus on altering physiological processes to reduce pain and these include massage and application of heat and cold [ 15 ].
Studies done in different countries with nurses in adult medical wards revealed that a deficit in knowledge relating to pain management was prominent i. Although the nurses in these studies had appropriate attitudes towards pain management, there were discrepancies between practice and attitude.
This means that nurses may have positive attitude towards pain management but without sufficient knowledge to effectively relieve the pain. However, Kassa and Kassa had different findings which showed that nurses had poor knowledge and Nurses with longer clinical working experience applied knowledge of pain to their daily practice [ 6 , 19 ].
However Yava et al had different findings in Turkey. A study to explore knowledge and attitudes of pain management among nursing faculty revealed that nurses incorrectly reported that measuring vital signs such as blood pressure and pulse was an accurate way to assess the level of pain a patient was experiencing.
They also indicated facial expression as a way of assessing pain levels. The purpose of this study therefore was to assess the knowledge and attitudes of registered nurses towards pain management of adult medical patients. This line of inquiry is important because absence of pain is part of the basic human rights to health. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes of registered nurses towards pain management of adult medical patients in Zimbabwe. A descriptive study to assess the knowledge and attitudes of registered nurses towards pain management of adult medical patients was carried out at Bindura Provincial Hospital.
A sample of 50 consenting registered nurses was drawn using a systematic random sampling method. A self-administered, questionnaire was used to collect data. A questionnaire was developed from relevant literature specifically for this study to obtain data for the quantitative approach design. The questionnaire consisted of 30 questions specifically designed to highlight the: Demographics Section A , Knowledge Section B and Attitudes Section C of the registered nurses towards pain management of adult medical patients.
The questionnaire was given to experts i. A pilot study was carried out at Shamva Hospital with 10 registered nurses to ensure reliability of the instrument. No changes were made to the questionnaire after expert review and pilot study. The reliability of the instrument was 0. The mean age was The total mean knowledge score was This study provides important information about the level of knowledge and attitudes regarding pain management of registered nurses in Bindura, Zimbabwe.
Nurses in this study had a mean total knowledge score of This is supported by a study done in Ethiopia [ 13 ]. This shows a gap in pain management because experts in pain management recommend that pain should be assessed as the fifth vital sign after blood pressure, pulse, respirations and temperature [ 5 , 7 ].
This is supported by a study done in Hong Kong that showed that nurses with longer clinical working experience applied knowledge of pain to their daily practice [ 6 , 19 ]. However, other researchers found contradicting results which showed a negative correlation between knowledge score and demographic variables such as age and working experience [ 7 ].
This means as nurses grow older and their knowledge on pain management decreases. This is quite disturbing as nurses are said to have the key responsibility of providing non-pharmacological therapies to patients as adjuvant to pharmacological interventions to maximise relief of pain [ 15 ].
This in contradiction with Lui, So and Fong who reported that pain is a common symptom for patients in medical units and effective pain management strategies can relieve it effectively.
These findings are in line with findings in a study done by Voshall, Dunn and Shelestak in which nurses incorrectly reported that patients did not give reliable reports of their pain [ 5 , 9 , 20 ]. Such negativity or knowledge deficit can be a barrier to effective pain management. These results show a positive correlation between knowledge and attitudes towards pain management that is, as the knowledge scores increases the attitudes towards pain management improves.
Miller found that nurses may have very positive attitudes towards pain management without sufficient knowledge to effectively manage pain. Nurses in the study done by Miller had higher mean attitude score of This is a cause for concern since nurses play a pivotal role in pain management.
Absence of pain is a basic human right therefore nurses need to be equipped with the necessary information so that they are able to effectively manage pain in adult medical patients. All Published work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4. Visit for more related articles at Health Science Journal.
Introduction Nurses play a pivotal role in pain management [ 1 ]. Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes of registered nurses towards pain management of adult medical patients in Zimbabwe. Material-Method A descriptive study to assess the knowledge and attitudes of registered nurses towards pain management of adult medical patients was carried out at Bindura Provincial Hospital.
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Hospitalization, which is the major health care cost in community, consumes a considerable part of the health care budget in general. Job satisfaction among Iranian Nurses. Maintaining control of your attitude is what makes you stand out from other nurses. Determining the effect of training the continuous quality improvement on knowledge, attitude, performance and the level of occupational satisfaction of the nurses. Pract Assess Res Eval. What are we going to do? Take a moment to think about your past successes, remember the steps you took and that feeling of triumph when your dream became a reality.
Nurses attitude. Attitude is Everything
Understanding attitudes and their effects on nursing practice
All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this published article. Data entered in computer software packages will be available up on request. Negative attitude and discriminatory behavior of health professionals constitute a major obstacle in psychiatric care and have been pointed out as a key issue in working with mental illness. Understanding about the attitude of nurses is crucial for quality and holistic care of psychiatric services and essential for the successful integration of mental health into primary health care.
However, there is a paucity of study to examine the attitude of primary health care nurses towards severe mental disorder in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the attitude of primary health care nurses and its associated factors towards people with severe mental illness in Addis Ababa.
Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted among nurses working at primary health care in Addis Ababa from May to June, Multistage sampling technique was used to select participants. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used.
Bivariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with attitudes of nurses in primary health care. A total of respondents were included in the study with a response rate of The mean age of participants was Nearly half of the participants have negative attitude towards people with severe mental disorders. Therefore, evidence based and contextualized models are warranted to mitigate negative attitudes of primary health care nurses.
However, the negative attitudes, stigmatization, and discrimination associated with mental illness are an important health issue and broadly explained by different segments of the population [ 4 , 5 ]. There were reports of stigmatizing behaviors from health care workers towards patients with SMD which includes offering discouraging advice, negative remarks, rejecting behavior, and negative attitudes [ 6 , 7 ].
Taking this in account, the attitudes and knowledge of nurses on mental illness have been argued to be a major determinant of the quality and inclusive care for people with mental illness [ 8 ]. The most frequently reported associated factors for negative attitude of mental health professionals towards people with SMD were being male, have less psychiatric nursing training, and hold junior positions tend to express less favorable attitudes towards people with mental illness [ 15 , 16 ].
Primary health care nurses with less training, minor exposure and experience in mental health has also reported negative, intolerant and fearful attitudes, and perceptions towards mental illness and mentally ill people [ 16 , 17 ]. From our experience, in Ethiopia, there seems a clear commitment for improving mental health care and increasing coverage at the highest governmental level. Implementation of the integration of mental health services at primary health care level was started in In order to make the integration effective, primary care health professionals were selected to be the key personnel.
A study from Nigeria suggests that the major challenges of successful integration of mental health into PHC could be a negative and stigmatizing attitude [ 18 ] but there is very limited information in the context of Ethiopia but understanding of the attitude of these professionals is extremely important for the delivery and uptake of mental health services in primary care level. The finding will also help to facilitate the integration of mental health service to primary health care level.
Conceptual frame work for factors affecting attitude of nurses in primary health care in Addis Ababa Ethiopia; Institution based cross sectional study was conducted from May to June, The study was conducted in Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia. The city has a total of health facilities including hospitals, health centers, health stations and clinics. There are 94 health centers under administrative city.
Ministry of health has four tier health care systems and primary health care unit PHCU is the 4th tier which is near to the community. This health facility is selected as a ministry of health pilot district for integration of mental health in urban health extension package. All nurses who are working at government financed health centers in Addis Ababa were considered as source population. Participants who were available during data collection period were the study participants. The minimum number of sample required for this study is determined by using single population proportion formula considering the following assumptions:.
Thirty percent of the total health centers were selected to take adequate number of health centers to represent the source populations. Out of 94 HC 28 HC was selected by using simple random sampling method from lists of all HC and simple random sampling technique was used to select the study subjects and study participants were proportionally allocated to selected health centers.
Severe mental disorders According to global mental health definition severe mental disorders mainly includes schizophrenia, bipolar and major depression disorders. Mh-GAP training WHO designed training for scaling up services for priority mental, neurological and substance use disorders.
Knowledge awareness about mental illness as measured by knowledge about mental illness questionnaire, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences NIMHANS , Bangalore, department of psychiatry a modified version for health workers [ 19 ].
All nurses who were working in the selected health centers during data collection period were included in the study. Psychiatric nurses were excluded from the study. An adapted structured questionnaire was used to collect data about socio-demographic characteristics. The tool was developed to assess attitudes towards severe mental illness of students or staffs in any health discipline. A single overall score is calculated by summing each individual item where a high overall score indicates more negative stigmatizing attitude with a possible range of 16—96 [ 20 ].
For the purpose of this study, categorization was done using the mean score. We did pretest of the instruments and experts were consulted about the content, face and technical validities. Internal consistency of MICA-4 was 0. The principal investigator or the research assistant will invite participants for the study. After reading the information sheet and the consent form, data were collected from those participants who gave consent. The translated Amharic version of self-administered questionnaire was disseminated to participants.
Minor language revision was made based on the findings of the pre-test. The filled questionnaire was checked daily by the principal investigator for completeness and neatness. Data collectors and supervisors were trained before data collection. The data collectors were psychiatry nurses and supervisors were MSc psychiatry professionals. The data were exported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Descriptive statistics frequencies, percentages, cross tabulations were used to summarize the sociodemographic and other preliminary data.
Bivariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with attitude of nurses in primary health care. Written Informed consent was obtained from each participant during data collection. All participants were informed about the aim and purpose of the study. Study participants were given the right to refuse or withdraw from participation at any time during data collection.
All personal information was kept entirely confidential. The response rate was Four hundred thirty Majority of the respondents, Among the total participants Among respondents, Related with clinical factors, 60 9. Twenty-four Clinical factors for attitude and associated factors of primary health care nurses towards people with severe mental illness in Addis Ababa, From the total participants of the study, Knowledge of primary health care nurses about people with severe mental illness in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Among participants, Bi-variate and multivariate analysis was done to test the association between different variables and negative attitude.
The odds of developing negative attitude among nurses who had no mental health training were about 4. The odds of having negative attitude among nurses who have poor knowledge about mental illness were 2.
This study was the first attempt to ascertain attitude and associated factors towards people with severe mental disorders among nurses who are working in primary health care in cities, Ethiopia. The current study indicated relatively high prevalence of negative attitude among primary health care nurses towards people with severe mental disorders.
The current finding was consistent with in a study conducted in other high and low resources settings such as Jamaica, Switzerland, Malaysia, and Greece [ 21 — 23 ].
This implies that negative attitude of primary health care nurses towards people with SMD is a global problem [ 6 , 10 , 11 , 24 ]. Similar explanatory model of mental illness and poor prognosis of the disorder across different settings might be the reasons. In some cultures nurses might explain supernatural causes for SMD and in settings where there is no effective interventions, in Africa, negative attitude might be higher.
The different in psychometric properties of different instruments across different settings might revealed different prevalent outcomes. To mention few of the instruments, opinion about mental illness scale, attitude scale for mental illness ASMI , attitude scale for mental illness ASMI and community attitude towards mental illness scale were used in Kenya, South Africa, Zambia and Nigeria respectively. Against the above findings, positive attitude towards people with severe mental disorders were reported from Bhutan, India, and Sweden among mental health nurses [ 23 , 25 , 26 ].
The difference with the current study and previous reports might be due to differences in that the theoretical training, increased interpersonal contact with people with mental illness, education and clinical experience in mental health which are important indicators for reduced negative attitude towards people with mental disorders. In Ethiopia, slightly different prevalence reports have been reported from hospital nurses [ 13 , 14 ].
Slight differences could be explained by the use of different measures of outcome. Of course, availability of training and exposure to the treatment of people with SMD could contribute for outcome differences.
Professional qualifications nurses who have diploma were 2. This is supported by study in Ethiopia among nurses working in public hospitals and study done in South Africa Durban among general nurses [ 13 , 27 ]. This finding reveal that nurses with higher educational level will have less stigmatizing attitude than those with lower level of educational status, and professionals with increased academic level will have the opportunity to have more theoretical knowledge about mental illness and the chance to have frequent contact with individuals with mental illness [ 27 ].
This study is supported by studies from other settings in Ethiopia and abroad, South Africa and Nigeria [ 13 , 28 ]. This might be due to inadequate education especially with regard to working with people with serious mental disorder and the instrument was designed to assess the attitude of the community rather than clinicians attitude [ 27 ].
This is in line with studies done in Taiwan, Republic of Ireland and Finland where nurses with less mental health training endorsed negative and stigmatizing attitude for people with severe mental disorders [ 15 , 17 ]. This is known that health training, clinical experience and increased interpersonal contact with people with mental disorders would reduce negative and stigmatizing attitude [ 6 ]. The odds of having negative attitude among nurses with poor knowledge about mental illness were 2.
This aligns with the findings in the WHO report and a study conducted in Sweden [ 8 , 29 ] which could be explained by lack of adequate training and less supervision by mental health teams as a cause of lack of knowledge. Accordingly, it might be argued that increased level of training have the effect of bringing about a decrease in negative attitude among nurses concerning people with mental disorders and this would reinforce the impression that increased level of knowledge about mental illness has a direct bearing on attitude development among the nurses [ 30 ].
About half of the participants have negative attitude towards people with severe mental disorders.